The weight people give to their core values affects their voting behavior and knowledge of this is the very core of framing. Our list of progressive values (in the left column) willm be very different from any set of basic conservative values.
Research by Jonathan Haidt posits that liberals and conservatives make decisions based on their acceptance of five moral committments he's outlined:
As with a good deal of social science, one must be very careful to look at definitions of terms; it is a tricky business to draw deep or lasting conclusions from narrow experimental definitions and Haidt's analysis is controversial. While I buy his idea that people weight core values differently when making decisions, it's a bit of a stretch to say Liberals don't recognize loyalty, authority or sanctity.
Progressives are loyal, but to people and institutions worthy of that loyalty. An obligation to the community is certainly sacred among liberals. And on authority, it's true that liberals find virtue in questioning authority because people in authority cannot always be trusted simply because they posess power. By the same token, Liberals making public policy are far more likely to trust scientific authority where evidence has been studied and replicated to a high degree of confidence and predictability.
Conversely, today's conservatives, by their legislation and governing show little significant "loyalty" to society as a whole, however if they perceive themselves as members of a subgroup, they are indeed likely to be intensely loyal to that group -fundamental Christians, gun owners, etc. So much so that the behavior of the group is never questioned; even if the group is factually wrong or even dangerous, the loyalty must remain ("America right or wrong"). Too much reliance on loyalty makes it easy to ignore facts in favor of ideology.
In addition, the effect that loyalty to their own groups might have on other groups seems of little concern to conservatives. They start with protection of their closest group -me, mine- in keeping with the authoritative famlily metaphor and only then consider wider society. This gets them into logical trouble when they claim to be members of large groups. To be a loyal American, a group that includes virtually all Americans, they need to demonize those that disagree with them by dividing people into true patriots and traitors, (as the GOPAC memo so clearly laid out.)
Liberals also have loyalties to subgroups, but come at things from the other direction to first consider the greater good of society as a whole and understand that to be loyal to every other human groups, they must be willing to compromise and accommodate.
The lesson to be drawn may be that we must be careful not to inflate the importance of narrow experimental definitions and also not simply accept an analysis such as Haidt's without really questioning what he means and how he knows it.
The weakest point in Haidt's set of fundamental morals is his glaring omission of "community" or "commons" as one of the fundamental moral commitments, as without it there is no society. It's also the one committment where liberals and conservatives differ most fundamentally.
Though conservatives say that an unfettered free market is good and government is bad, the fact is that neither free markets or government are inherently evil nor inherently benevolent. The truth is nuanced (and conservatives don't do nuance).
The laws of supply and demand in a free market do work as advertised. In general, a free market beats other forms of economies encouraging innovation and bringing more goods and services to more people. However, free markets are routinely gamed by greedy people and huge corporations who put profits ahead of the common good. Not all corporations are evil but some very powerful ones certainly are.
Centuries of history show that when wealth accumulates in fewer and fewer hands, those hands want more and more wealth until their greed creates devastating outcomes for everyone else. Greedy kings, wealthy cartels, bankers, robber barons, mega corporations -the perpetrators are sprinkled through the centuries and the stories are epic and tragic. Eventually the general population is increasingly taxed to support the greedy -as we see now with the shifting of taxes away from the wealthy and onto the middle class.
Are we entirely at the mercy of market forces? Have we no say when our ability to provide for our families is curtailed by runaway greed? Of course we have a say. Americans have the right, given to us by the Constitution, to make decisions for ourselves. Nowhere does it say the "free market" is immune from our right to prevent lurching crashes that damage our economy and our livelihoods. History shows that sensible market regulations blunt the tragic effects of pathological greed. We've done it before and we can do it again.
Huge corporations will have to suck it up if voters ever decide to reign in corporations and industries who habitually endanger our economy or don't care if they ruin the world future generations will live in just because some tycoon wants to be a bigger tycoon than the tycoon next door. We can stop them and they won't die -they'll be fine, so will we.
And what abouit the conservative claim that government is inherently bad? Like the free market it is both goop=d and bad. Citizens have every right to prevent the government from spying on us or from buying 600 dollar hammers. Governments can get out of control and we do need to be vigilant. But, government is also our tool and we can use it wisely or not. If we want to cut taxes so low that the whole place falls apart, I suppose we are free to continue, as we have, to create that tragedy. We may instead choose to empower our government to protect us, provide infrastructure, encourage entrepreneurship, ensure safety and reach for the moon -because we are allowed to do these things. In our republic we make these decisions through the representatives we elect, not mega-corporations or wealthy individuals; not a church, not a King.
The solution to the dismantling and destruction by conservatives of public schools, roads, social security, health care, higher education, environmental protection and virtually all areas of government -except for the military and corporate subsidies- lies solely with the voter. Until conservative voter supression laws and dirty tricks take wider hold, voters will still determine the outcome of elections. If you don't think that's true, consider that every last dollar of the billions spent on elections is spent to influence voters, or suppress the right to vote, or discourage people from voting at all. This tells me that the only thing the beneficiaries fo Citizens United are afraid of -is us! Voters can stop all this nonsense at any time.
We'll be much better off if voters finally shake off the fog of counterfactual and self serving propaganda from the right (and even some on the left) and vote out the politicians who don't seem to get that they work for us, not the 1%.
The unprecedented letter that 47 GOP lawmakers signed and sent to Iran's Ayatollas provides a good example of how we might create an issue frame. We want to use our underlying values (see them the left column) as often as we can, but we also need to suggest frames voters can employ to understand a specific issue.
As the letter makes very clear, the GOP is intentionally trying to sabotage the multilateral negotiations. The letter is dangerous if it stalls this attempt to limit Iran's bomb building capability. It is disrespectful to a sitting President -and to the office- and irresponsible while the Secretary of State is in final stage multilateral negotiations that have been in the works for years. It intentionally undermines US diplomacy now and in the future. US credibility is in question among our allies who are not sure they can trust our obligations anymore.
Stories are great scaffolds to use in frames (explicitly or evoked) and there is a story arc suggested here. Sabotage implies a saboteur (GOP), a victim (the US, Middle East peace) and, if Kerry prevails, a hero.
This is a very good time for this frame, because the GOP will not come out smelling good if the negotiations fail and Kerry will come out smelling like roses if a treaty results. Attaching the word sabotage to the GOP now when it is likely to stick paints the GOP as actively working against American interests and that frame may persist if we then use it describe the damage the GOP is doing in so many other areas (schools, roads, Social Security, health care, etc.).
The controversy about whether or not to require vaccination in school aged children is a symptom of a deeper issue: how we arrive at decisions when making public policy. Should policy makers make decisions based on fact and science or ideological and religious beliefs?
A recent Pew Research poll found that 68 % of all people thought the government should require vaccines while a disturbing 30% did not. Young people (41% ) are more likely than old (20%) to favor a "choice" to vaccinate, most likely because older people lived through the 60s when measles outbreaks in the US plummeted from almost 800,000 a year to mere hundreds in less than a decade (and saw similar achievements with polio and smallpox). Along party lines, both Democrats and Republicans in 2009 were equally in favor (71%) of vaccine requirements for admission to school. In 2014 Republicans slipped to 65%, Democrats increased to 76%.
Yet this still leaves us with that disturbing chunk of Americans across party lines who make decisions about vaccines on ideology or religion, when a decision so potentially catastrophic ought to be a science no brainer. Vaccine denial, like climate and evolution denial, is a great example of the human vulnerability to choose belief over facts.
What is it about ideologies that would have a minority of both lefties and righties opposing mandatory vaccination? I went off in search of conservative and progressive frames that might explain this. On the right, the core frames seem to be individualism, freedom from government interference and the primacy of parental authority, i.e., "the government can't force me to vaccinate my kids". A general distrust of science among conservatives applies to vaccines, but to a much smaller degree, perhaps because when it comes to one's health even those who generally distrust science prefer to be like the deathbed convert, "better safe, than sorry".
A core conservative frame is that wealth is proof of hard work and therefore grants moral authority to the wealthy. Anything that interferes with one's ability to amass wealth in any quantity is morally wrong. There is also the persistent assumption that government is inherently more wasteful and inefficient than the market (the tremendous waste of the Great Depression and Great Recession notwithstanding). Lowering taxes is morally right because it keeps government from wasting the hard earned tax dollars it "takes" from citizens.
Because taxes are inherently immoral, it becomes immoral to even suggest that a minimum amount of funding is necessary to keep public schools, roads, the environment, parks, air traffic control or anything else we as citizens have decided work best as government investments running. It is also complete heresy to suggest that those who benefit most from those investments should pay more in taxes.
It does not take a genius to see where dis-investment leads -to the erosion and eventual destruction of those investments and the control of crucial infrastructure placed in the hands of those for whom profit trumps any other consideration.
Why has the public, who one presumes likes driving on roads and sending all kids to school, not stopped conservatives by voting them out? Perhaps it's because we are coasting on the investments we made many decades ago. Bridges are falling down, but not too many just yet. Schools are starved, but kids still get on the bus. Air traffic control is operating on antiquated equipment, but, thanks to heroic controllers, few airplanes are yet falling from the sky.
Of course, wrecking most public investment is the goal of conservatives; it opens the way for for-profit companies to take over those functions. This is why 80% of charter schools in Michigan are run by for-profit corporations, why prisons are privately run and why our armed forces are more and more comprised of mercenaries.
Because there is no accounting for greed in the "free market", public investments can easily suffer the same fate as our own investments did when we let the banks do whatever they pleased with them. Our economy was bled dry by irresponsible and immoral bankers yet these are the very people conservatives consider most moral.
The constant cry from conservative strategists is lower taxes, not lower taxes at all costs, because they don't want you thinking about costs. The fact that everything has not collapsed just yet suggests to voters that everything is fine and conservatives may be right that we should reward the wealthy and give them implicit authority over our government.
Privatizing profit from infrastructure and important services is one thing; the socialization of cost is another. Polluters are exempted from cleaning up their messes because that happens in the future. Wal Mart racks up record profits and offers abysmal wages because they can coast along on government services provided by local, state and federal governments to feed and house their employees. I suspect they're not thinking much about the destruction of those things they so much depend on because business decisions are often made to enhance profit in the next quarter or next year, not 25 years from now. They'll deal with that then, if they think about it at all.
The fact that everything has not collapsed just yet supports the illusion that everything is fine, government truly controlled by citizens is unnecessary and that conservatives may just be right that we should reward the wealthy and give them authority over our government. Pay no attention to the destruction ahead -or the man behind the curtain.
Lost in the media images of righteously indignant protesters at US
border facilities is the fact that all these children stuck there
are war refugees. In their home countries it matters not that the
belligerents are drug kingpins and police. Day by day, year in and
year out these children see their neighbors and family left dead
in the streets. Imagine the constant terror. So they come by
themselves, or are sent north by terrified relatives.
Our hearts go out -until they hit the border. Publicly the
protesters' fear is that the cost might come out of their pockets.
Privately the feelings are a stew of racism, xenophobia and
extremist right wing ideology. Children of immigrants themselves,
they don't make the connection that those kids could have been
their own ancestors just decades ago. In this narrow mental space
it's no longer about terrorized children: we simply must
air drop these kids back into the war zone.
How cruel. Helping refugees is fine if it's happening somewhere
else, a check in the mail, seen on CNN. Get too close though and
"my brothers keeper" goes right out the window.
Dear Chairman Wheeler,
Consider this. What would happen if you told the ISPs that they cannot have a two tiered Internet?
Comcast will not go away. Trust me they'll make plenty of money, if my ever rising cable bill is any indication. The other ISPs will not say, oh well then, we're closing up shop -too bad, no more internet for you. The Internet will go on - with or without the current ISPs- simply moving all speech, all business, all religion, all social justice, all books, all news, all video -all everything- just as it does now: free flowing with opportunity for everyone on an even playing field.
In my country, the citizens are supposed to run the show. If we want to say you can't take over the Internet then that's just tough beans for Comcast. You are working for us, not them.
But if you do go ahead with this historically monumental bad idea then at least protect the citizens by 1) forbidding lawsuits against any governmental body, from the feds on down, that wants to build citizen owned Internet services, and 2) requiring every ISP to pass citizen owned internet data at the fastest speed possible on their network. I won't speculate as to your motives for wanting to give the ISPs what they want, or the President's motives for giving tacit support for killing Net Neutrality by his stunning silence and lack of leadership but, if you do cave to industry pressure and take the Internet away from citizens, then the activism must begin for Congress to override that poor choice with new law.
This is not an issue of trade or technology; the Internet is a fundamental evolution of human communication. Ask yourself this: are the ISPs really that much more important than citizens? Your choice is to go down in history as the public servant who set the precedent for free speech for the ages or as the guy who screwed the pooch for everyone.
Benghazi will, continue to rear it's ugly head from time to time, but not because there's any news. This is really about messaging. The conservatives want their base fired up so they employ what I call the ZOMBIE ATTACK!!! -a claim that keeps resurfacing after being conclusively and repeatedly proven false. It's just one of a number of new conservative propaganda tricks I've been cataloging. Here they are:
"Poof!" When the going gets tough, the tough just make something up like “Clean Coal”! Also known as PIOOTA-(pulled it out of their a$$), The Poof is a close cousin to the "Well my dad says" tactic (below).
"I'm rubber and you're glue”. Whatever you're doing wrong, just accuse the other guy of doing it. Conservatives are largely successful with this one because 1) they anticipate these charges and accuse progressives first and 2) progressives have not learned to ignore these taunts. Instead we get apoplectic and sputter some denial or defense or, heaven forbid, a string of facts. It's not pretty. Example: "Progressive's just want to give money to people who don't deserve it" -as if Wall Street bailout, corporate subsidies, tax cuts for billionaires never happened?!
"The Chevy Codpiece". Just as some men need to offset the diminutive size of their manhood by parading about in an urban assault vehicle (or sending their trophy wife to Sam's Club in it), likewise when conservative ideas aren't supported by the facts they put together a "think tank" to make it appear as if they are. Examples: The Discovery Institute, The Greening Earth Society.
"Well, my dad says" A corollary to The Chevy Codpiece above, this trick involves creating "authoritative facts" where there are none. Example: Tobacco and chemical industry "research".
"These are not the Droids you're looking for." A Svengali-like move that mesmerizes the ill informed, the Droid trick makes the hearers ignore the real issue. Examples: While actively deploying voter suppression in a number of ways, conservatives shout about protecting the vote through Voter ID laws. Or any Republican sponsored legislation with the words "clean" or "fairness" in the title.
"ZOMBIE ATTACK!!!" A zombie attack is a narrative or message that persists long after it has been proven false. Famous examples are Dick Cheney's continual claims that WMDs existed in Iraq, claims that Al Gore said he invented the Internet or that it was government and irresponsible homeowners, not Wall Street that wrecked the economy. Zombie attacks can persist for decades (climate change deniers) or even centuries (Creationism).
The point of initiating a zombie attack is not to actually assert that a claim is true but, in true Zombie fashion, it's simply aimed at capturing more BRAINS! The continual repetition of the story raises doubt in those who are not intimately familiar with the issue. This spreads the infection and, of course, once bitten, those who believe the claim, in turn, become Zombies and infect others. The danger of infection is greatest at Tea Party rallies or Mega Churches.
Zombie attacks are particularly effective because reason and facts are useless as defenses. Unfortunately the accepted method of dealing with zombies -a chainsaw to the head- is ill advised for all the obvious reasons. The best defense is a good offense: protect your brain and the brains of your loved ones by cultivating a healthy skepticism and practicing critical thinking.
"Release the Krakken!" Last ditch conversation stoppers thrown in when conservatives have quite obviously, rhetorically and/or factually lost an argument. Examples are "
But, but... 9/11!", "Why do you hate America!?"and the ever popular "Benghazi!"
Edit fall 2014: Bill Maher picks up on the Zombie theme with Zombie Lies in his New Rules.
Send any tricks you've discovered to unclegeo at myaurora dot org.
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- FrameShopMN: Sort of like Al Capone demanding a probe of the FBI. http://t.co/itBAr1JgNI #RomneyShambles #GOP #shameless... http://t.co/FjgInSwKxz
- FrameShopMN: RT @keepon2012: What The Founding Fathers Thought About Corporations http://t.co/W31RrLP5B3 via @AddInfoOrg
- FrameShopMN: The New #GOP! - Republicans drop elephant, dig apt new mascots. http://t.co/r7GtiaOMj2 #hip #modern #politics #p2 http://t.co/772KD3PYeT
- FrameShopMN: @Ford exec: commercial van sales grew 14% in 2012 - Obama Recovery rocks on. #economy #p2 #stribpol
- FrameShopMN: Upside surprise - 175k new jobs in May! - Obama Recovery rocks on. http://t.co/eYLqIpeGuG #p2 #stribpol http://t.co/xgYnEFLhky